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FBIM Transactions
DOI 10.12709/issn.2334-704X
ISSN 2334-704X (Online)
ISSN 2334-718X (Print)


In the next issues of the MEST Journal, among others, we will publish:
  1. Slavko Ivković and Aleksandar Pešić

    APPLICATION OF FUZZY SETS THEORY TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT
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    Abstract: Quality management implies the usage of various quality control tools and methods for analyzing data related to quality performance with the aim of identifying trouble spots and the areas that need quality improvements. Evaluation of this important aspect of production management is determined by the organization's capacity for self-appraisal and manager’s capabilities to use statistical techniques and effectively assess different production and quality parameters. However, ...     Quality management implies the usage of various quality control tools and methods for analyzing data related to quality performance with the aim of identifying trouble spots and the areas that need quality improvements. Evaluation of this important aspect of production management is determined by the organization's capacity for self-appraisal and manager’s capabilities to use statistical techniques and effectively assess different production and quality parameters. However, in some cases when the information available is uncertain, imprecise and/or incomplete and the assessment include human subjectivity, it is not possible to define parameters as crisp values or reasonably describe them in conventional quantitative expressions. In such situations, parameters could be expressed by fuzzy linguistic variables that successfully cope with the vagueness in linguistic expressions. Since the concept of linguistic variables plays a pivotal role in almost all applications of fuzzy sets theory, it is also used in this paper in formulating the assessment model of production and quality control. In our model, specific linguistic variable, expressed in five fuzzy triangular numbers, is used to assess key parameters. In order to illustrate the industrial application of proposed fuzzy assessment model, we conducted an empirical study that involved six major suppliers in automotive industry in Vojvodina. Empirical data were drawn from 44 senior managers using fuzzy rating scale-based questionnaires. Results are discussed and directions for future research are provided.

    Keywords: Quality management, Quality control, Fuzzy sets, Linguistic variables, Fuzzy triangular numbers.

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  2. Zoran Jerotijević, Živanka Miladinović Bogavac, and Dušan Jerotijević

    THE VISEGRAD GROUP AND ITS POSITION IN EUROPE
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    Abstract: In international relations, certain countries with close interests or goals often form groups to deepen cooperation and facilitate the achievement of goals. The Visegrad group, initially comprised of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, aimed at joining the EU as quickly as possible. Later, by mutual separation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the group has four countries. Joining the European Union has not led to the breakup of the group due to the fulfillment of its overriding objective. These four countries ...     In international relations, certain countries with close interests or goals often form groups to deepen cooperation and facilitate the achievement of goals. The Visegrad group, initially comprised of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Hungary, aimed at joining the EU as quickly as possible. Later, by mutual separation of the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the group has four countries. Joining the European Union has not led to the breakup of the group due to the fulfillment of its overriding objective. These four countries have continued their cooperation to better represent their interests within the European Union. It should be noted that all four countries have become members of the NATO Pact but do not have the same views on relations with Russia. Their mutual relations are of great importance for economic issues, that is, for the protection of the economic interests of these countries in relation to others. Also, the issue of regulating relations with national minorities is significant. Recently, this group of countries is uniquely addressing the migrant crisis that has affected many European countries, especially EU member states. Unlike the leading EU countries, the members of the Visegrad Group do not accept the arrival of migrants to their territory, as they would consider it a destabilization of their countries. The Hungarian leader Orban is very explicit when Hungary does not want Islamists in its territory because it has been occupied by Islamists for two centuries. This attitude is practically demonstrated by Hungary by building a wall on the border with Serbia.

    Keywords: Visegrad group, EU, cooperation, goals, relations, migrants

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  3. Boris Krivokapić

    NOTION OF WAR AND CONTEMPORARY WARS
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    Abstract: After a brief introduction, the author deals with the name, significance, and problem of defining war. He then goes on to question the division of wars into "old" and "new," pointing out the arguments in favor of the division defends, but also explaining that it is not sustainable. He opts for the term "contemporary wars" and briefly analyzes the basic features of these wars, such as the fact that there is a decreasing number of interstate wars and participating states; that non-state actors are increasingly emerging as parties to the conflict; that modern wars begin without a declaration of war; that the relationship between war and international law can be viewed on several levels; etc. Starting from the view that regardless of these ... After a brief introduction, the author deals with the name, significance, and problem of defining war. He then goes on to question the division of wars into "old" and "new," pointing out the arguments in favor of the division defends, but also explaining that it is not sustainable. He opts for the term "contemporary wars" and briefly analyzes the basic features of these wars, such as the fact that there is a decreasing number of interstate wars and participating states; that non-state actors are increasingly emerging as parties to the conflict; that modern wars begin without a declaration of war; that the relationship between war and international law can be viewed on several levels; etc. Starting from the view that regardless of these peculiarities, contemporary wars are essentially nothing new, the author identifies the most important elements characteristic of each war and, combining them as a whole, defines war as by international law regulated sufficiently protracted organized struggle involving states or other entities of international law on one or all sides, which, through the use of weapons, inflict significant casualties and destruction on other such entities to pursue an important political, economic or other interest. Although the author immediately acknowledges the imperfection of this definition, he points out the hope that this definition can be useful in most cases, and then explains and critically analyzes the parts that make it up. In his concluding observations, the author points out that there is neither, nor is it possible, a generally accepted definition of war that would be sufficiently precise and yet applicable to all cases. Therefore, from the perspective of international law, this situation is overcome in three ways. On the one hand, in practice, the qualification of each particular conflict is given in terms of whether it is war or something else. The problem is that often different parties give different qualifications, and so the same event is called one by the war and the other by something else (incident, humanitarian intervention, etc.). In principle, a solution may be required in accepting the UN Security Council's assessment. However, we know from practice that this is not always a reliable criterion either since the Council is a political body whose decisions are heavily influenced by its five permanent members. On the other hand, the rules of international law of armed conflict apply to all events that have the character of an inter-state, civil or any related armed conflict. This means that they are valid even when the conflict is too low in intensity to be considered a war. This, among other things, achieves that the protection afforded by international law to all victims of war extends to those into whose lives have entered a specific armed conflict. Finally, to ensure that its rules are consistently applied and, in particular, and thereby protect the victims of war, international law defines war crimes and crimes against humanity. In principle, responsibility for them exists regardless of whether they are committed in a war between states or a conflict in which at least one party is a non-state entity. It is a matter of individual criminal responsibility before a national court of a country, but increasingly also before an International Criminal Court or an international ad hoc criminal tribunal. Of course, there is always the problem of ensuring that these rules are applied equally to all without discrimination and double standards.

    Keywords: War, Contemporary Wars, International Law, International Relations.

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  4. Nevenka Nicin, Slobodan Nicin, and Vojislava Grbic

    HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AS AN ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT SUBSYSTEM
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    Abstract: Human resources with the total knowledge, skills, and creative capabilities available to an organization. To be a total intellectual psychic energy, the organizer can engage in achieving the goals and development of the business. Human resources management consists of a series of mutual activities and tasks of management and organization aimed at ensuring an adequate number and structure of employees, knowledge, skills, motivations, and behaviors necessary to achieve the current developmental and strategic goals of the organization. Recruitment is one of the most important strategic functions of entrepreneurial and top management, especially in . . .     Human resources with the total knowledge, skills, and creative capabilities available to an organization. To be a total intellectual psychic energy, the organizer can engage in achieving the goals and development of the business. Human resources management consists of a series of mutual activities and tasks of management and organization aimed at ensuring an adequate number and structure of employees, knowledge, skills, motivations, and behaviors necessary to achieve the current developmental and strategic goals of the organization. Recruitment is one of the most important strategic functions of entrepreneurial and top management, especially in complex firms with many employees. Recruitment involves managing people to achieve certain business goals of the entrepreneur and his firm. The success of the implemented management depends on successful staffing. HR or HR is an indispensable function of every entrepreneur or responsible top manager. The primary role of human resource management is to align the number of HR structures and activities with the planned scope and structure of the organization's determined business operations. This is the backbone of achieving the goals of the company as a whole and the goals of individual business units within complex firms. Personnel policy in organizations should be planned in the short and long term to achieve the goals while respecting education and personnel management.

    Keywords: personnel, top management, entrepreneur, implementation, personnel policy

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  5. Snezana Stojanovic

    MODERN INTERNATIONAL TAX SYSTEM
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    Abstract: Global events and relations directly influence the international tax system. Numbered political, economic, financial, and legal events, demographic changes, migrations, changes in ecology, development in the industry ..., influence and create interrelations between state, and international tax system. In the modern world, the most significant influence on all spheres have the most powerful economies in the world . . .     Global events and relations directly influence the international tax system. Numbered political, economic, financial, and legal events, demographic changes, migrations, changes in ecology, development in the industry ..., influence and create interrelations between state, and international tax system. In the modern world, the most significant influence on all spheres have the most powerful economies in the world that make Group 8 (Group 20), United Nations, European Union, United States, Russia, and rapidly developing economies such as China, India, Brazil, but also multinational companies... Often, their ideas are realized by United Nations and OECD projects or projects created and realized by other states. Recently, significant changes in the international tax system have been influenced by breaking out global financial and economic crises, the rapid growth of the number of multinational companies, and their political influence, because of BEPS, happenings in European Union, digitalization, global change in the world wealth, etc. The paper deals with these phenomena from the aspect of their influence on international tax law and international tax system.

    Keywords: international tax system. Group 20. European Union. BEPS. OECD. multinational companies.

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  6. Dubravka Skunca, Jelena Markovic, and Danilo Rudic

    WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM – THE MOST COMPETITIVE NATIONAL ECONOMIES AND THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIAN COUNTRIES
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    Abstract: Competitiveness is the ability of the national economy to reach high but sustainable growth rates of GDP per capita. Since 1979, experts from the World Economic Forum have been compiling an annual Global Competitiveness Report, ranking national economies globally. As a way of measuring the competitiveness of national economies, 12 pillars of competitiveness are used to determine the overall ranking of each country. The 2019 report covered 141 countries and most competitive economies are Singapore, United States, Hong Kong, Netherlands and Switzerland. In 2019 Serbia was ranked 72nd on the list, which is    . . .     Competitiveness is the ability of the national economy to reach high but sustainable growth rates of GDP per capita. Since 1979, experts from the World Economic Forum have been compiling an annual Global Competitiveness Report, ranking national economies globally. As a way of measuring the competitiveness of national economies, 12 pillars of competitiveness are used to determine the overall ranking of each country. The 2019 report covered 141 countries and most competitive economies are Singapore, United States, Hong Kong, Netherlands and Switzerland. In 2019 Serbia was ranked 72nd on the list, which is seven positions lower from the previous year and 37th positions lower than Slovenia, which represents the best-ranked country of the former Yugoslavia, because of macroeconomic stability and skills of population, business dynamics and the ability to innovate. Serbia should improve its position in the field of adoption of information and communication technologies, health care and the financial system. The worst-ranked country of former Yugoslavia in 2019 was Bosnia and Herzegovina and it should improve position within institutions, product market, labor market, market size, business dynamics and ability to innovate.

    Keywords: World Economic Forum, competitiveness, national economy, former Yugoslavian countries.

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  7. Vesna Milanovic, Milanka Bogavac, and Jelena Golubovic

    COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIZATIONAL IDENTIFICATION
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    Abstract: Identification is a very complex concept. As a psychological variable, identification is the topic of research in the field of organizational behavior. At the same time, identification is the topic of research in the field of social psychology. In both cases, identification is viewed from social identity perspective. Thus, social psychologists are credited with introducing social identity approach to organizational context. Rather little attention has been paid to organizational identification as a unique topic in the relevant literature during the second half of the 20th century unlike other psychological variables such as job satisfaction, work motivation, etc. Therefore,   . . .     Identification is a very complex concept. As a psychological variable, identification is the topic of research in the field of organizational behavior. At the same time, identification is the topic of research in the field of social psychology. In both cases, identification is viewed from social identity perspective. Thus, social psychologists are credited with introducing social identity approach to organizational context. Rather little attention has been paid to organizational identification as a unique topic in the relevant literature during the second half of the 20th century unlike other psychological variables such as job satisfaction, work motivation, etc. Therefore, in this paper, organizational identification, its development, and similarity to other concepts, as well as its components, levels, and types are concisely presented. A review of the relevant literature was done. The literature review showed that organizational identification is different from organizational commitment. The components of (organizational) identification are the cognitive component, the affective component, the evaluative component and the behavioral (the conative) component. Some authors distinguish between the foci of (organizational) identification such as identification with the career, identification with the group or other organizational unit (for example the working unit), identification with the organization, and identification with the occupation. At the same time, the different components and foci of organizational identification are differentially associated with different work-related attitudes as well as work-related behaviors. It follows that organizational identification is a unique concept and a multidimensional construct. Therefore, it is necessary to further encourage research efforts in which more attention will be devoted to organizational identification as a unique topic.

    Keywords: organizational identification, concept, social identity

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  8. Halima Onalla Ali and Nada Zivanovic

    INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR A MODERN BUSINESS SYSTEM
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    Abstract: The importance of internet technology for the dynamics of industrial development in the modern world is shown by the facts that primarily refer to more successful, efficient, and faster business. Globally, the world is dominated by the success of computer engineering and electrical engineering. In the same way as the most effective communication programs in the field of the Internet, modern business systems include achievements of the world-class programs related to computer programming, networking, or system design. Practice in the world shows that   . . .     The importance of internet technology for the dynamics of industrial development in the modern world is shown by the facts that primarily refer to more successful, efficient, and faster business. Globally, the world is dominated by the success of computer engineering and electrical engineering. In the same way as the most effective communication programs in the field of the Internet, modern business systems include achievements of the world-class programs related to computer programming, networking, or system design. Practice in the world shows that network technology is constantly changing, which means that employed administrators - programmers and the like, they must constantly participate in the development of IT technologies to keep up with the latest developments. Each work environment includes internal and external factors of internet technology development, to achieve efficient business in the information sector. Modern business communications imply unavoidable participation in the incorporation of new information performances and their application in company practice. This means that it is necessary to implement two-way communicative use of Internet information technologies, efficiently and at a high level of development. To succeed, one needs to constantly implement new knowledge that brings a successful business. The goal is to adapt to all the changes that are taking place in the field of information technologies to successfully develop and implement ever new programs. Constant monitoring of new knowledge includes the Internet and the entire IT system. The goal is to identify changes in the external and internal environment that affect these systems. The focus is on computer networks and system administration. This shows that it is necessary that in many companies in the world, more and more employees are engaged in computer hardware and adequate modern equipment. E-commerce is an interactive dynamic process of communication between sellers and buyers in today's so-called "virtual business world". The significant features of this model are online trade and shortening the duration of the purchase (for example, when buying various tickets, travel reservations), etc. This paper aims to present the key factors of information technology development in the field of modern business of industrial and other companies in the world.

    Keywords: Information technology, business, modern approaches, business characteristics, e- networks, communication

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  9. Zoran Bundalo and Zoran Pavlovic

    ANALYSIS OF ADVANCED INTERNET TECHNOLOGIES INTENDED FOR REALIZING BUSINESS PROCESSES
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    Abstract: The paper presents and analyzes advanced internet technologies that have the primary objective of replacing completely existing business practices where the user of the service and product must be physically present at the service provider's location to complete the procurement process. This type of business in some cases requires an extension of the user’s non-refundable time interval (waiting in line, limited hours, etc.) and even a lack of money in   . . .     The paper presents and analyzes advanced internet technologies that have the primary objective of replacing completely existing business practices where the user of the service and product must be physically present at the service provider's location to complete the procurement process. This type of business in some cases requires an extension of the user’s non-refundable time interval (waiting in line, limited hours, etc.) and even a lack of money in your wallet or a forgotten payment card. In this way, the user under such conditions can give up and his decision does not satisfy his need. Based on the above, organizations need to be one step ahead of their users and, with the help of available technologies, provide a favorable ambient climate to approach the user, his wishes expectations, and needs. Replacing the traditional business model with new ones that are based on the digital platform increases the organization's competitiveness in the market, at the same time reduces costs and increases the cash flow in the overall business. It is, basically, a new business philosophy in the field of process management that is based on the intensive deployment and implementation of more intelligent services. The analysis of the current state and effects of the implementation of the existing models that are in use clearly indicates that there is significant space in improving the network environment based on Internet technologies. To support sustainable electronic business processes, new technologies are being adopted that are tailored to the needs of the customer and service provider.

    Keywords: e-commerce, MOM server, SOA technology, advanced internet technologies, user and service provider

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  10. Snezana Mihajlov and Nenad Mihajlov

    AGE OF EMPLOYEES AS A PREDICTOR OF TURNOVER INTENTION
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    Abstract: The research was created as an attempt to discover the differences in the turnover intentions in organizations in Serbia about the age of its employees. A survey was conducted on a sample of 236 respondents working in privately-owned IT and publishing companies and one state-owned company. For data collection, a questionnaire was created for the examination of selected variables through    . . .     The research was created as an attempt to discover the differences in the turnover intentions in organizations in Serbia about the age of its employees. A survey was conducted on a sample of 236 respondents working in privately-owned IT and publishing companies and one state-owned company. For data collection, a questionnaire was created for the examination of selected variables through appropriate instruments, which was performed via the Internet, by sending the questionnaire to the e-mail addresses of employees in November 2019. One-factor multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine differences in the level of turnover intention in terms of age. Differences in the level of expression of the turnover intention according to the age of the respondents were tested by the chi-square independence test. Despite the generally accepted opinion that younger employees will more easily decide to leave the organization, the results of this research show that the age of employees does not significantly affect the turnover intention, ie there is no connection between the age structure of respondents and the turnover intention. However, significant differences are observed by including other demographic characteristics (gender and level of education of employees). Thus, it was determined that to a greater extent, male respondents over the age of 45 intend to leave their current job, unlike their younger colleagues and female respondents. At the same time, it has been proven that older highly educated respondents, in contrast to those with a lower level of education, think more about leaving the organization.

    Keywords: employee turnover, turnover intentions, demographic characteristics of employees, age structure of employees, predictor of turnover intentions.

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  11. Filip Turcinovic, Drasko Bosanac, and Biljana Petrovic

    UNESCO RECOMMENDATION ON THE PROTECTION OF HISTORICAL AND TRADITIONAL UNITS AND THEIR ROLE IN CONTEMPORARY LIFE
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    Abstract: Cultural heritage, together with natural heritage, forms the basis of an integral approach to the protection of these treasures of humans. This implies national and international legal protection. In accordance with the adopted rules and obligations arising from them, it is necessary to take the necessary measures for their implementation in the practice of protection. It is common for cultural and natural heritage to be considered as one    . . .     Cultural heritage, together with natural heritage, forms the basis of an integral approach to the protection of these treasures of humans. This implies national and international legal protection. In accordance with the adopted rules and obligations arising from them, it is necessary to take the necessary measures for their implementation in the practice of protection. It is common for cultural and natural heritage to be considered as one entity. They encompass all the works of these two entities. Both those of lesser value and those of representative value.This first category, despite the fact that they have, respectively, acquired a certain value and become part of the ambient entity, conditionally by the very act, receives special or additional protection. Anthropocentric model of protection through general models of accepted forms the usable dimensions of the abovementioned goods do not meet the principles of sustainable development. Such a model would include the achievements of science and the entire population to the extent necessary. Financial assistance from individuals and the private sector would not be excluded.

    Keywords: environmental protection, cultural heritage, natural heritage, integral approach, international legal protection, sustainable development

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  12. Svetlana Djuricic

    CONDITIONAL DISCHARGE (RELEASED ON PROBATION) - ASPECTS CONCERNING CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
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    Abstract: Conditional discharge dates to the mid-nineteen century and has its roots in the progressive and Irish imprisonment system. The third phase of the imprisonment in the progressive system was named — conditional discharge, while in the Irish system it was the fourth phase. The Irish imprisonment system was accepted in a great number of countries, among which there was also a pre-war Yugoslavia. Several prisons in Yugoslavia were modeled on that system — Zenica, Sremska Mitrovica, Lepoglava. The conditional release aims to ... Conditional discharge dates to the mid-nineteen century and has its roots in the progressive and Irish imprisonment system. The third phase of the imprisonment in the progressive system was named — conditional discharge, while in the Irish system it was the fourth phase. The Irish imprisonment system was accepted in a great number of countries, among which there was also a pre-war Yugoslavia. Several prisons in Yugoslavia were modeled on that system — Zenica, Sremska Mitrovica, Lepoglava. The conditional release aims to ensure the good behavior of the convicted person who performs their work responsibilities and who will not commit new criminal acts before the expiry of their imprisonment punishment, and all with the aim of re-socialization of the convicted person. Because of that, an extension of probation ban for certain criminal acts contradicts the basic purpose of punishment prescribed by Article 42 paragraph 1 item 1 of the Criminal Law, and that is preventing the perpetrator to commit criminal acts and changing them in such a way that they do not commit criminal acts in the future. Punishment and sentence execution cannot be considered retaliation for the committed crime, which would rather fit the theory of intimidation by sentence execution, the theory which has been abandoned a long time ago and replaced by the current modern theory of the purpose of punishment, the theory of re-socialization, which highlights the individualization of the imprisonment sentence as an essential feature for the rehabilitation of the convicted person.

    Keywords: conditional discharge, punishment, purpose of punishment, rehabilitation, re-socialization

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  13. Milan Stamatovic and Masan Ercegovic

    HUMAN RESOURCES – EDUCATION, INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MANAGMENT
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    Abstract: Human resources are the only creative factor that ensures business dynamism. In the countries of the European Union, after having acquired higher education, many employees tend to pursue specialist and narrowly specialized aspects of vocational and professional development. Large enterprises, and in the last ten years, a growing number of medium-sized enterprises, are providing an increasing number of specialist training, especially to employees that spent more than three years working for their last employer. Specialist team training ... Human resources are the only creative factor that ensures business dynamism. In the countries of the European Union, after having acquired higher education, many employees tend to pursue specialist and narrowly specialized aspects of vocational and professional development. Large enterprises, and in the last ten years, a growing number of medium-sized enterprises, are providing an increasing number of specialist training, especially to employees that spent more than three years working for their last employer. Specialist team training within the company, based on positive and recommended EU Directives, is carried out in accordance with unified standards. The objective of such narrow specialist training is based on adherence to the very approach of enterprise valuation, in accordance with standards that have a constant tendency to unify, especially in the EU. The vision of lifelong learning is a concept for tackling unemployment, improving working conditions, developing the careers of individuals, and creating an entrepreneurial spirit. For the success of the training, it is necessary to have a good idea of the substance and content, including the methodology of adult training, and then defining the purpose of the training.

    Keywords: Human resources, education, training, digital literacy, e-Learning.

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